F1 Renault Engines



Renault is committed to motorsports because competition is the perfect laboratory for conceiving of new technical solutions, showcasing their performance, and testing their reliability.

Whenever Renault enters a competition, the winning technologies are applied to production vehicles so that customers can benefit from improved performance, reliability, and efficiency.

Motorsports competition has always been a part of Renault’s DNA, and they have made these competitions into showcases of the brand’s technological expertise and of its teams driving passion. Motorsports are a source of pride and motivation for all of the Group’s customers and associates because they promote positive values like sharing and the pursuit of excellence.


In Formula 1, the most important thing is performance. When it comes to production engines, this performance needs to be linked to driving pleasure. Renault’s production engineers (some of whom previously worked in the F1 labs) have therefore created “downsized” engines that maximise energy output. The challenge is to reduce the engine size –that's the downsizing–sometimes even removing a cylinder, all while maintaining or increasing the engine’s power and torque with superchargers and turbo-compressors. It is in this way that the new Energy engines have almost all gained between 10 and 20 Nm compared to their predecessors, leading to a driving experience based on the driver’s pleasure, on pure dynamism, on revving the engine, on liveliness and on responsiveness.

Of course, there are other technologies borrowed from the world of F1 racing that have been put into use, increasing the performance and pleasure of production engines, technologies like square combustion chambers, for example. Another example would be the way that cooling water circulates in F1 engines, which has been adapted so that production engines operate faster at the ideal temperature for even more speed and efficiency.

In Formula 1, weight is the number one enemy. Getting the most out of each drop of fuel allows you to keep less of it on board, resulting in a vehicle that is lighter and therefore faster on the track. The new Renault engines have directly benefitted from the expertise of the Group’s drivers. The latest generation of Energy engines use less fuel and produce less CO2, up to 25% less depending on the engine.

To lower fuel consumption, Renault uses lighter aluminium engines that have been downsized (a 1.2L uses less fuel than a 1.6L), and that incorporate innovative materials like graphite, diamond-like carbon, and Teflon® timing belts, that reduce friction between the engine’s moving parts. Less friction and less weight means less wasted energy and less fuel needed, it’s as simple as that! Less fuel also means less CO2 emitted and therefore less damage to the environment, another one of Renault’s focuses.

True success means reducing fuel consumption without diminishing the pleasure and sensation of driving. With the new Energy engines, the driver has control over an engine that is responsive AND economical at the same time.

Consistency, durability, and reliability are coded into the genes of Renault’s F1 engines. It’s these qualities that have lead to victory, and without them Renault would certainly not have won its 12th World Constructor’s Championship title in 2013.

From its F1 team to its production teams, Renault demands the best in order to guarantee the quality and durability of its engines, no matter if they’re Formula 1 or Production models. The engineers that have come out of the Formula 1 labs have guided the development of new petrol and diesel production engines, while also sharing their design methods and digital calculation tools for simulating engine durability. Quality tests are regularly carried out as engines come off of the production line, meaning that new engines are always getting more reliable and more durable over time.


The Energy family of engines derives from Renaults F1® technological expertise. Learn more about their capabilities, never before seen from engines this size.

Energy dCi 160

RENAULT, engine manufacturer par excellence, rises to the challenge of energy efficiency in 2014.
As a successful engine maker in the world of F1, Renault makes full use of its experience by continuously refining the energy efficiency of its road car engines to deliver even greater driving enjoyment. The latest fruit of the firm’s downsizing strategy is the Energy dCi 160 Twin Turbo, the first 1.6-litre diesel powerplant to benefit from twin-turbocharging.

This 1,598cc block delivers 160hp and a generous 380Nm of torque, which catapults it into the domain of 2-litre engines in terms of performance. This important breakthrough combines with fuel consumption and CO2 emissions savings of 25%.

Improved performance courtesy of twin-turbocharging expertise

The use of ‘Twin Turbo’ technology for this diesel engine ensures a blend of low-end torque and high power at higher revs, the obvious knock-on effect of which is enhanced driving enjoyment.

The system comprises two sequential turbo-compressors:

  • The first is a very low inertia turbo which provides high low-end torque for crisp pull-away and mid-range acceleration. To guarantee sprightly pick-up response at low revs and incisive acceleration, 90% of peak torque is available from 1,500rpm.
  • The second turbo assumes the reins at the higher-end and produces high power (100hp per litre) at faster engine speeds to ensure smooth, linear, dependable acceleration right the way up to maximum revs.

The engine always works within its range of optimum efficiency, which naturally yields benefits in terms of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.

A hi-tech unit boasting technology borne out of Renault’s F1 expertise

This expertise in the field of sophisticated turbochargers is not the only link between the 1.6-litre Renault Energy F1 Power Unit and the Energy dCi 160 Twin Turbo block which takes advantage of a number of technologies borne out of Renault’s know how in F1, notably in terms of cooling and friction reduction:

  • The transverse water flow system permits faster and more efficient cooling of the combustion chamber.
  • ‘U’-section U-Flex piston rings adapt to changes in the form of the cylinder walls resulting from fluctuations in temperature and pressure to yield the optimum compromise between efficiency and friction.
  • Super-finishing also reduces friction.

The fuel injection system of the Energy dCi 160 Twin Turbo operates at a pressure of 1,800 bar to function with the twin turbocharger. It complies with Euro 6b emissions legislation and incorporates a NOx Trap and particulate filter regeneration system.

By dint of its efficiency, this engine is comfortably capable of powering larger vehicles, and will notably be available for Renault’s forthcoming top of the range models.

Energy dCi 130
ENERGY dCi 130

The Energy dCi 130 engine is a high-tech package derived from Renault's F1 experience. This 1.6-litre Diesel engine is the most performant in its category. Thus equipped, with fuel consumption of 64.2 mpg and 115 g/km CO2 emissions, Scénic and Grand Scénic become the market's most fuel-efficient MPVs.

Preserved performance

Developed within the framework of the Alliance, the newcomer's performance credentials are similar to those of its predecessor, the 1.9 dCi 130 engine. This 1.6-litre powerplant delivers peak power of 96kW (130hp) and generous torque of 320Nm available across a broad rev-band. The Energy dCi 130 is initially available under the bonnet of the Scénic MPVs (Scénic and Grand Scénic), and will soon equip the Mégane family and some vehicles from Nissan's C-segment.

This new block marks the beginning of a new phase in Renault's engine downsizing policy. The downsizing was obtained thanks to the shortening of the stroke of the pistons and a redesign of the reciprocating parts. The cylinder's swept volume is reduced and thereby diminishes the amount of fuel being burned during each cycle. Performance levels have been maintained, however, by improving turbocharging efficiency.

Energy dCi 130 successfully combines driving enjoyment and fuel-efficiency, yet still returns record low fuel consumption (64.2 mpg) and CO2 emissions (115 g/km) on Scénic and Grand Scénic*.

From F1 to road cars: in continued pursuit of mechanical excellence

The technology transfer from Renault Sport F1 to road cars was facilitated by Philippe Coblence, the design office manager for the R9M project (Energy dCi 130), who formerly held the same position in Viry-Châtillon, working on F1 engines*.

Three areas where F1 thinking was applied to the new Renault Energy dCi 130 engine are:

A 'square' architecture: the configuration of an engine is said to be square when piston stroke is similar to the diameter of the cylinder (bore), an arrangement which allows large-diameter valves to be housed in the cylinder head for more efficient filling of the combustion chambers, thus boosting performance

Transverse water flow: this cooling technique, which is common in Formula 1, minimizes downforce losses and enables a smaller and therefore less energy-consuming water pump to be fitted.

Work on internal friction: integration of a UFLEX oil control ring technology, common in F1. As explained by Philippe Coblence, "the principle is comparable with that of a multi-blade razor. It adapts naturally to the contour without having to exert high pressure on the cylinder wall. The result is maximum efficiency and less friction".

Packed with advanced technology

With no fewer than 30 patents registered, the Energy dCi 130 features a raft of solutions that have enabled significant CO2 emissions (-20%) and fuel consumption savings (-30g/km)*:

Low pressure EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation): Renault will be the first volume manufacturer to introduce this technology on a wide scale in Europe. Low pressure EGR involves uprating the exhaust recirculation rate while at the same time containing intake pressure and the temperature of the turbocharger. The system consists in recovering the exhaust gases further downstream, once they have been through the turbine and particulate filter. Emissions of nitrogen oxides are eliminated more efficiently in this way than is the case with a high pressure EGR, and engine efficiency is improved. The combustion is of a higher quality and CO2 emissions are reduced.

Stop&Start technology involves automatically cutting the engine when the vehicle comes to a standstill, and re-starting it when the vehicle needs to pull away again. This technology is to be gradually introduced on forthcoming engines.

Variable swirl technology actively controls how the mix swirls inside the combustion chamber as a function of the demand being made of the engine.

A variable displacement oil pump allows oil flow to be adjusted as a function of the engine's precise needs in order to minimise the amount of energy required to drive the pump.

Thermal management increases the speed at which the engine reaches its working temperature in order to minimise friction (oil viscosity).

Multi-injection strategy uses latest-generation seven-hole solenoid-operated injectors which are capable of generating several, extremely short squirts (up to six per cycle), thereby permitting combustion efficiency to be finely adjusted. This technology results in lower fuel consumption, fewer polluting emissions and less noise.

ESM (Energy Smart Management): This involves recovering the energy generated under deceleration and braking to relieve the engine by isolating the alternator during moments of low efficiency. This entails changes to battery technology.

* Fuel consumption and CO2 emission figures certified under applicable regulations.

Energy dCi 110
ENERGY dCi 110

Renault's mid-range engine, the 1.5 dCi, powers one in three of the brand's vehicles, from Twingo to Laguna. Nearly one million units were manufactured in 2010. The new transformed version of the powertrain will initially be available for Mégane / Scénic range before being extended to the other vehicles marketed by the Group.

The 1.5 dCi metamorphosis

The Energy dCi 110 engine is a real jewel of technologies. Its evolutions compared to the 1.5 dCi engine are: a turbocharger architecture, an individualised spray cone angle and reduced friction, as well as a carryover of the Energy dCi 130's 'technology package'.

Energy dCi 110 offers reduced load losses thanks to an innovative turbo architecture. The path where intake air travels, has been simplified to achieve more efficient, uprated turbo performance without increasing fuel consumption. Moreover, a low inertia turbo improves response at low engine speeds thanks to the optimised size of the blade.

The more precise spray pattern significantly improves combustion performance (15 percent less unburned fuel), which in turn has a beneficial effect on fuel consumption and CO2 emissions*. Individualised spray cone angle technology compensates the natural nozzle offset inherent in eight-valve engines due to the asymmetry of the intake and exhaust valves. Injection is ensured by seven-hole piezoelectric injectors.

Friction-related energy losses have been reduced, meaning that less fuel is required to deliver the same quantity of energy. Other benefits are longer engine life and enhanced robustness.

An engine fitted for the Energy family

Features carried over from the Energy dCi 130 engine's 'technology package' revolve around 3 main technologies:

  • Stop & Start technology with braking/deceleration energy recovery (ESM) involves automatically cutting the engine when the vehicle is at a standstill. When driving exclusively in built-up areas, fuel savings can amount to more than one litre per 100km. When the driver presses on the clutch pedal again, the engine fires up instantly. To cope with all this repeated starting, the starter motor has been uprated (starter, starter ring gear), as has the fuel injection system (pump and high-pressure injectors). The engine has been engineered for 410,000 starting cycles (over 300,000km), which is almost seven times more than the same figure for a conventional engine. ESM (Energy Smart Management) is a system that allows the kinetic energy produced under deceleration/braking to be recovered by the alternator and stored in the battery. Functions which consume electricity (heater, lights, radio, etc.) are directly fed by the battery to ease the work of the alternator. Recovered energy is notably employed to restart the vehicle.

  • EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation): Renault has innovated with the launch of the European market's first engine to feature low pressure EGR technology. This solution recovers exhaust gases further downstream, once they have been through the turbine and particulate filter. They are cooled in a low pressure intercooler which enables them to be recirculated through the turbo mixed with air and thereby increase turbo pressure. The gases are then cooled by air in the turbo radiator and used for combustion a second time. This so-called 'cold loop' enables emissions of nitrogen oxides to be cut more efficiently than is the case with a conventional high pressure EGR, while engine efficiency is improved and combustion is of a higher quality. Low pressure EGR technology calls for an engine architecture that minimises the distance between the catalytic converter / particulate filter and the air intake, an arrangement known as a post-turbo after-treatment system. This proximity enables catalytic converters and particulate filters to function at higher temperatures and therefore more efficiently.

  • Thermostat-controlled automatic-flow rate oil pump: the capacity of the oil pump (and therefore oil pressure) is adjusted as a function of the engine's needs at any given moment in order to reduce the pump's energy consumption. An oil temperature sensor makes real-time adjustments to minimise viscosity-related friction, which has a beneficial knock-on effect on fuel consumption.

Sober and environment-friendly

The Energy dCi 110 engine offers fuel consumption savings and reduced CO2 emissions thanks to torque increase of 20Nm to 260Nm*, available from as low as 1,750 rpm. The power output remains unchanged with 110 hp at 4,000 rpm.

Thus equipped, Mégane Energy dCi 110 becomes a new spearhead for the range with CO2 emissions as low as 100g/km, equivalent to fuel consumption of just 4 litres/100km*.

The catalytic converter/particulate filter arrangement and low pressure EGR technology facilitate the engine's conversion to Euro 6 legislation. To the same end, the compression ratio has been increased from 15.2:1 to 15.6:1.

* Fuel consumption and CO2 emission figures certified under applicable regulations.

Energy TCe 130

Continuing the renewal of its range of downsized engines, Renault welcomes its ninth Energy engine. Designated Energy TCe 130, this petrol new engine is a more powerful derivative of the Renault Energy TCe 115 and takes over from the former 1.4-litre TCe 130. It is available on New Mégane, New Scénic and New Grand Scénic.

Energy TCe 130: a 1.2 turbo petrol engine tailored for the open road

With a power output of 130hp at 5,000rpm and peak torque of 205Nm at as low as 2,000rpm, this 1.2-litre turbo petrol engine is equipped with latest-generation direct injection and offers the performance of a normally-aspirated two-litre powerplant, making it ideal for use on major roads.

Thanks to the Energy technologies it employs, some of which are derived from Renault’s F1 experience, its fuel consumption represents a saving of between 15 and 20 per cent – depending on models - compared with the engine it replaces, which equates to more than one litre saved for every 100km covered.

This responsive and extremely smooth new engine picks up eagerly from low revs, making it a pleasure to drive. At the same time, it is easy to forget thanks to its silent operation and unobtrusive ultra-rapid Stop&Start system.

Fuel savings of more than 1L/100 km and CO2 emissions reduced by up to 20%

In addition to standing out as the market’s highest-performing 1.2 litre petrol engine, the Renault Energy TCe 130 also shines when it comes to making savings at the pump thanks to a reduction in fuel consumption of 20%* compared with the TCe 130. The Energy TCe 130 version of New Scénic Xmod returns combined-cycle fuel consumption of just 6.2 litres/100km*, while that of New Mégane Hatchback with the same engine is 5.4 litres/100km*, an improvement of more than 1 L for every 100km travelled. That equates to CO2 emissions of only 124g/km* for New Mégane Hatchback (down 29g/km) and 140g/km* in the case of Scénic Xmod.

Running costs have consequently been reduced significantly, while the lower CO2 emissions allow customers in some countries to benefit from state subsidies or tax incentives. At the same time, servicing has been facilitated by an oil-change interval of 30,000km (with ecological oil filter) and lifetime timing chain. Made for the open road, this 1.2 litre petrol turbo engine stands comparison with diesel power for annual distances travelled of up to 25,000km or 30,000km (based on French statistics).

Packed with technologies

The Renault Energy TCe 130 benefited from a particularly thorough acoustic refinement process, the result being a smooth, muted sound profile, even at high engine speeds.

The engine features the same technical specifications as the Energy TCe 115 petrol engine. Features like direct fuelinjection, turbocharging, an integrated turbo manifold and variable valve timing combine to deliver maximum torque at low revs and ensure the availability of torque across a broad effective rpm range. Fuel is injected directly into the combustion chamber for optimum efficiency as a function of the running conditions, the advantage for the customer being valuable fuel savings and reduced CO2 emissions.

The Energy TCe 130 engine is equipped with a Stop&Start with ultra-rapid restart. Sensors in the system detect the precise position of each piston and inject fuel into the cylinder that is best placed to restart the engine instantaneously. The ‘free’ energy recovered and stored under braking is used to charge the battery and restart the engine.

* Homologated fuel consumption and emission values in accordance with appropriate legislation.

Energy TCe 115


The Energy TCe family marks a fresh development in Renault's petrol engine strategy and is expected to account for 85 per cent of the brand's pet Europe by 2015. The Energy TCe 115 is a 1.2-litre engine with unprecedented performance and a model of fuel efficiency.

The best power/fuel efficiency ratio

This brand new engine is poised to appear in the first half of 2012, initially in the Mégane and Scénic range where it will gradually replace the 1.6 16V 110hp (type K4M). Compared with the latter, it will represent an uprated performance package despite its 25 percent smaller cubic capacity:

  • a turbocharged four-cylinder 1.2-litre engine (1,198cc) with direct injection.

  • maximum power of 115hp (plus 5hp).

  • peak torque of 190Nm (plus 40Nm) between 2,000 and 4,000 rpm;

  • reduction in fuel consumption by 25 per cent. That works out as a saving of more than 1.5 litres/100km compared to the engine it replaces* and will give the car a range close to that of a diesel.

  • running costs will also take a significant plunge thanks to the combination of its timing chain and low fuel consumption and CO2 taxes.

  • new-generation downsizing: on an all-aluminium block, an unprecedented specific power of 100hp/litre for a 1.2 petrol engine. A three-cylinder, 900cc 90hp TCe engine will soon be marketed showing it is a modular family.
Performance-improving, efficiency-enhancing technologies

Renault's first turbocharged, direct-injection petrol engine - the Energy TCe 115 - is particularly responsive. Thanks to peak torque of 190Nm, a figure worthy of a two-litre powertrain and available from as low as 1,750rpm, the Energy TCe 115 delivers the acceleration and mid-range response expected of a 1.6-litre engine.

This has been made possible thanks to a range of new technologies, some of which come from the world of F1:

  • 'Square' engine architecture: takes up less space yet delivers the same performance

  • Reduced friction: friction-related energy losses have been reduced, meaning that less fuel is required to deliver the same quantity of energy. Other benefits are longer engine life and enhanced robustness.

  • Variable-rate oil pump: oil pressure is electronically monitored and adjusted as a function of how the engine is being used. The benefit to the customer is lower fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.

  • Low-friction timing chain: this optimised timing chain is equipped with a hydraulic tensioner which keeps it permanently taut to minimise friction.

  • Graphite-coated piston skirts DLC (Diamond Like Carbon) coated cam followers, a technique that has been employed in F1 for some years. Benefits are significantly reduced friction and enhanced energy efficiency for uprated performance and improved fuel consumption.

  • Direct fuel injection: fuel is injected directly into the combustion chamber to optimise efficiency by carefully adapting the strategy as a function of how the engine is being used. The result is improved combustion and, consequently, lower fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. Double cam-phasing

  • Variable Valve Timing (VVT). Combined with an integrated turbo manifold, VVT ensures that maximum torque is available at low engine speeds and across a broad rev-band.

  • Stop & Start with ultra fast start-up: at a standstill, the system automatically detects the position of each piston and injects fuel into the most favourably-placed cylinder, in the same way as a cyclist presses on the uppermost pedal when pulling away. Re-starting is instantaneous. The energy required for frequent re-starting is recovered during deceleration and braking.

The expertise of Renault Sport F1 channelled for the Energy TCe 115

Renault has sought to dial Renault Sport F1's technological excellence into the design of its Energy engines. The Powertrain Engineering Department has accordingly called on talent from the world of Formula 1 to work on its new engines. Following the example set by Philippe Coblence, who worked on the Energy dCi 130 (type R9M), Jean-Philippe Mercier was tasked with engineering the Energy TCe 115.

Jean-Philippe Mercier (Powertrain Engineering Manager, Energy TCe 115 family):

"As early as the 1980s, we stood out as pioneers of downsizing in F1. Even in those days, we were getting some 850hp out of our 1,500cc turbocharged V6. The experience we have accumulated has brought us a thorough understanding of powerful engines for their size. My input has focused on the Energy TCe 115's specific power, and the result is 100hp/litre, a first for a 1.2-litre engine. And Renault has no intention of stopping its work there!"

* Fuel consumption and CO2 emission figures certified under applicable regulations.

Energy TCe 90


The Energy TCe 90 engine is the first three-cylinder turbo petrol engine developed by Renault. It boasts the best driving enjoyment/fuel economy equation on the market and its user cost is reduced. The Energy TCe 90 will be launched in the future Clio and will gradually replace the current TCe 100, without sacrificing driving pleasure despite its 25 per cent reduction in cubic capacity.

Renault's first three-cylinder turbo engine

First three-cylinder engine by Renault, the Energy TCe 90 is the product of a brand-new Renault design. This 899cc turbo petrol engine is all-aluminium.

Featuring a very low inertia turbo (the lowest on the market) combined with Variable Valve Timing (VVT), the Energy TCe 90 boasts the best driving enjoyment/fuel economy equation on the market.

The new engine develops 90hp at 5,000rpm and torque of 135Nm available across a broad rev-band, guaranteeing all the driving enjoyment of a 1.4-litre naturally aspirated engine. With 90 per cent of torque available from 1,650rpm, it delivers smooth response from low engine speeds. Driving is smoother with less frequent gear-changes in built-up areas. Peak torque of the sprightly, free-revving Energy TCe 90 is 5,500rpm.

The Energy TCe 90 delivers the market’s fastest airflow ‘tumble’ effect inside the cylinders. Combustion is virtually instantaneous and takes full advantage of the downsizing to three cylinders:

  • downsizing is a technique which involves reducing the cubic capacity of an engine in order to reduce fuel consumption, while maintaining performance thanks to turbocharging. The resulting saving in fuel consumption is estimated to be five per cent;

  • removing a cylinder reduces friction by 20 per cent compared with a four-cylinder engine architecture of the same cubic capacity, leading to a four per cent saving in fuel consumption;

  • the three-cylinder pulse, combined with a longer exhaust phase, is twice as powerful as that of an equivalent four-cylinder engine. This natural turbocharging means that less demand is made of the turbo which is in turn more efficient, directly benefiting fuel consumption.

The Energy TCe 90 will be launched in the future Clio and will gradually replace the current TCe 100, without sacrificing driving pleasure despite its 25 per cent reduction in cubic capacity.

A turbo petrol engine, fuel economy champion...

Renault’s engineers took full advantage of the new threecylinder engine architecture (see box below) to achieve an optimum air-fuel ratio on the Energy TCe 90 unit, even at peak power (from 2,000 to 4,000rpm), in order to bring down fuel consumption in all driving conditions.

The result is a 25 per cent reduction in NEDC combined cycle fuel consumption and CO2 emissions compared to the engine it replaces.

User cost is reduced : between -20% to -50%, depending on countries' tax incentives. With the Energy TCe 90 engine, the driver is spending less on petrol and pays less taxes linked to CO2 emissions (depending on countries) : -1l /100km, -30g of CO2/km * compared to the previous engine. In some cases, he will pay less taxes linked to the engine's cylinders (Germany, Portugal, Romania…)

* : Homologated consumption and CO2 emissions.

...& proud member of the Energy family

The Energy TCe 90 is the eighth engine of the Energy family, launched within the space of 16 months. As with all engines from the range, the Energy TCe 90 benefits from breakthrough technologies and an expertise derived from Formula 1.

Following the example set by Philippe Coblence, who worked on the Energy dCi 130, Jean-Philippe Mercier, another man from Viry-Châtillon (where Renault F1 powerplants are produced) was tasked with engineering the new three- and four-cylinder Energy TCe powerplants. The Energy TCe 90 benefited from his expertise in three key areas:

  • a comprehensive grasp of ‘square’ engine architectures;

  • reducing friction, thanks to materials with low friction coefficients which are used in F1, such as Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) coated cam followers, graphitecoated piston skirts, and Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) coating of the piston rings;

  • guaranteed reliability: the Energy TCe boasts a specific power output of 100hp/litre – a first for an engine of this size.

Just like all other engines of the Energy range, the three-cylinder is packed with a raft of technologies:

  • Stop & Start technology, combined with deceleration/braking energy recovery;

  • high tumble effect: optimised flow of the fuel mix inside the combustion chamber for fast, stable combustion;

  • thermal management technology, which speeds up the rate at which an engine reaches its ideal working temperature by 15 per cent on average;

  • oil pump and a Teflon®-coated timing chain, which help to reduce friction;

  • finally, the engine’s harmonics-rich signature pitch that recalls the sound made by six-cylinder powerplants.